Technical Information

  • Adjustment of Rheological Properties for Veterinary Suspensions

    Adjustment of Rheological Properties for Veterinary Suspensions
    Oral suspensions, or drenches, are a popular and common approach to overcoming the many obstacles of administering medicines to animals. Formulating solid dosage forms into suspensions enables line extensions of existing products for various animal species. Suspensions can be administered orally by drench guns or syringes, and can be mixed into feed or metered by dosing pumps into drinking water. The selection of a suitable stabilizer to adjust the required rheological properties is a major challenge in the development of suspensions. The goal of this study was to develop an oral suspension for animals with optimal stability, administration, and palatability.
  • Animal Health - Joint Health Tablets

    Animal Health - Joint Health Tablets
    Simplify the Manufacturing of Joint Health Tablets for Dogs: A Case Study with Green-Lipped Mussel Extract. With a prevalence of over 20%, osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of joint disease in dogs. Green-lipped mussel (GLM) powder is widely used for prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis and may reduce, or even eliminate, the need for conventional medical therapy—NSAID’s in particular.
  • Benefits of Using High-Functionality Excipients in a Continuous Manufacturing Process

    Benefits of Using High-Functionality Excipients in a Continuous Manufacturing Process
    In a continuous process, mono-functional excipients must be added through individual feeders, possibly resulting in multiple sources of variability. Alternatively, a single high-functionality co- processed excipient can accomplish the same task using only one feeder, thus enhancing finished product performance while keeping variability to a minimum. This paper will cover how using one high-functionality excipient can provide significant benefits over using multiple traditional mono-functional excipients.
  • Compression of Probiotics for Companion Animals

    Compression of Probiotics for Companion Animals
    Probiotics, defined as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host,” indicate promising potential for the companion animals. Normally probiotics are filled into capsules or sachets; however, these dosage forms pose challenges for administration to animals. These factors make it worth considering direct compression of probiotics into tablets.
  • Direct Compression of Lactase Tablets with PROSOLV® EASYtab Nutra

    Direct Compression of Lactase Tablets with PROSOLV® EASYtab Nutra
    Due to the high prevalence of lactose intolerance, lactase supplements have increased in popularity, as they can improve lactose digestion and reduce gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study was to develop lactase tablets by a simple and robust direct compression process, which enables tableting of the moisture sensitive enzymes without the addition of water.
  • Direct Compression of Probiotic Tablets with PROSOLV® EASYtab Nutra

    Direct Compression of Probiotic Tablets with PROSOLV® EASYtab Nutra
    Although probiotics are mostly administered in the form of capsules, there are some advantages of tablets in terms of production effort, cost efficiency and stability of the probiotic bacteria. As probiotics are sensitive to high pressure and temperature, it is essential to select appropriate excipients for direct compression to ensure sufficient viability of the bacteria cells during production and storage. The aim of the study was to investigate the performance of high-functional excipients for direct compression of probiotic tablets.
  • Dispersible Cellulose Navigator

    Dispersible Cellulose Navigator
    VIVAPUR® MCG is used as a suspending agent, emulsifier, opacifier, and thickener for oral suspensions, veterinary drenches, sprays (nasal, oral, or topical), reconstitutable powders, creams, gels, and lotions. This Dispersible Cellulose Navigator details the various available grades of VIVAPUR® MCG and their applications.
  • Formulation Effects on Tablet Surface Properties and Film Coating Adhesion

    Formulation Effects on Tablet Surface Properties and Film Coating Adhesion
    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different commonly used lubricant and disinterants on tablet surface and film coating adhesion
  • Influence of Different Lubricants on Tableting Characteristics and Dissolution Behavior

    Influence of Different Lubricants on Tableting Characteristics and Dissolution Behavior
    Apart from their desired effect of reducing the ejection force and punch adhesion, lubricants also have a considerable influence on the tablet hardness, disintegration, and dissolution times due to their inherent hydrophobicity. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the lubricant molecular structure on the aforementioned characteristics.
  • Matrix Effects on the Performance of Disintegrants

    Matrix Effects on the Performance of Disintegrants
    Recommendations for the selection of disintegrants are usually based on the solubility of the tablet matrix and the active ingredient. Wicking disintegrants, such as croscarmellose sodium (CCS), are commonly recommended for soluble matrices. Wicking enables fast distribution of water throughout the tablet matrix, thus leading to rapid dissolution of the soluble matrix components. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and other swellingtype disintegrants are often selected for insoluble matrices. In this case, the swelling potential of the disintegrant is utilized to mechanically disrupt the structure of the tablet. Crospovidone (PVPP) is considered a universally suitable disintegrant, exhibiting a combination of the three mechanisms mentioned above.
  • Performance of MCC Spheres and Sugar Spheres in a Multi-particulate Omeprazole Formulation

    Performance of MCC Spheres and Sugar Spheres in a Multi-particulate Omeprazole Formulation
    Robust and inert, spherical carriers are a prerequisite for the manufacture of multi-particulate dosage forms. In this study, spheres composed of microcrystalline cellulose (VIVAPUR® MCC SPHERES) were compared with sugar spheres.
  • PROSOLV ODT G2

    PROSOLV ODT G2
    Orally Disintegrating Tablets (ODTs) are becoming more popular with doctors and patients due to the advantages they offer over traditional tablets and capsules. ODTs dissolve quickly on the tongue with no water required. They can be taken virtually anywhere and offer discrete administration, broad application and are suitable for numerous indications and patient types.
  • Specific Excipient Requirements in Continuous Tablet Manufacturing

    Specific Excipient Requirements in Continuous Tablet Manufacturing
    Continuous Manufacturing Technology continues to gain importance in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Although traditional processes like direct compression, roller compaction, or wet granulation are used within the continuous lines, the requirement for ingredients may differ from traditional batch processing. This whitepaper analyzes the various steps of a continuous process in the light of excipient properties.
  • The Effect of Humidity on Tablet Surfaces Containing Different Types of Superdisintegrants

    The Effect of Humidity on Tablet Surfaces Containing Different Types of Superdisintegrants
    While it is desirable for processing, handling and packaging purposes, to produce tablets of high mechanical strength, the same tablets are supposed to disintegrate rapidly upon contact with water. Superdisintergrants built into tablet formulations help to bridge these two extremes. The three main mechanisms exhibited by disintegrants are swelling, wicking (i.e. transportation of water into and throughout the tablet matrix), and shape recovery (i.e. a delayed and controlled elastic recovery). Swelling can be attributed to sodium starch glycolate (SSG) as its prevailing behavior. Croscarmellose sodium (CCS) shows predominantly wicking, whereas crospovidone (PVPP) is characterised by strong shape recovery. It is noteworthy, though, that none of the disintegrants falls into one sole category.
  • The Effect of Silicification on the Roller Compaction Performance of Microcrystalline Cellulose

    The Effect of Silicification on the Roller Compaction Performance of Microcrystalline Cellulose
    Roller compaction, or dry granulation, is a manufacturing method for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical tablets that continues to gain importance. In order to achieve the desired granule properties, it is vital to use efficient binder-filler systems, which enable easy compaction, reproducible milling results, and high re-compactibility during the final tableting step. This study examines the effect of silicification on the roller compaction performance of microcrystalline cellulose.
  • The Influence of Matrix Plasticity on Lubricant Effects

    The Influence of Matrix Plasticity on Lubricant Effects
    During the compaction of tablets, the tablet mass undergoes various steps. At first a rearrangement of the loose powder occurs during which air is expelled and the powder particles assume a denser packing. Beyond this stage, particle deformation takes place. There are three principal forms of deformation.
  • The Performance of PROSOLV® EASYtab SP in 4 Medium-Dose, Direct Compression Formulations

    The Performance of PROSOLV® EASYtab SP in 4 Medium-Dose, Direct Compression Formulations
    In the present study, the performance of PROSOLV® EASYtab SP was tested in four DC formulations with different model APIs. Each of the selected APIs presented a particular challenge in terms of producing tablets with suitable hardness, weight uniformity, content uniformity and/or reliable dissolution profiles.
  • The Use of EMDEX® in a Lactose-free Reformulation of Cetirizine Tablets

    The Use of EMDEX® in a Lactose-free Reformulation of Cetirizine Tablets
    Spray-dried lactose is widely used as filler and binder in the pharmaceutical industry, but many adults are not able to di­gest lactose. Therefore, it is indispensable to provide alternatives to lactose-containing drugs in order to make them suitable for lac­tose intolerant patients. EMDEX® is a promising substitute for spray-dried lactose as it has similar powder and tableting pro­perties. The aim of this study was to test a lactose-free refor­mu­lation of cetirizine tablets. EMDEX® was used suc­cessfully as a lactose substitute in cetirizine tablets resul­ting in comparable tablet properties in terms of crushing strength, disintegration time and dissolution profile. Furthermore, the EMDEX® formu­lation was characterized by an excellent powder flow and low ejection forces during the tableting process.
  • Utilising VIVAPHARM® PVP K30 and VIVAPHARM® PVP K25 as Wet Binders to Optimise Naproxen Immediate Release Tablets

    Utilising VIVAPHARM® PVP K30 and VIVAPHARM® PVP K25 as Wet Binders to Optimise Naproxen Immediate Release Tablets
    The objective of this Technical Information is to demonstrate the effect of viscosity of the selected wet binder on the tableting performance and dissolution of naproxen immediate release tablets.
  • VIVAPUR® MCG 900X F as a Stabilizer for Nutraceutical Emulsions

    VIVAPUR® MCG 900X F as a Stabilizer for Nutraceutical Emulsions
    Many nutraceutical ingredients are not water soluble. Therefore, they are often formulated as either suspensions or emulsions. In the case of nutraceutical emulsions, the active ingredients are dis¬solved in oil or the oil phase itself can be a nutraceutical ingre¬di-ent, for example fish oil, which contains high quantities of health-promoting omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In order to stabilize the thermodynamically instable system of two immiscible phases, emulsifying agents are required. Classic emulsifiers support the emulsion formation and stabilization by lowering the surface ten¬sion. VIVAPUR® MCG enables additional long-term stability of oil-in-water emulsions by the formation of a gel network.
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